葡萄品種
Grape varieties

梅鹿
/梅洛/美露/美樂

Merlot

由於梅鹿的柔軟度和“多果肉”, 加上較早成熟, 使梅鹿成適合跟晚熟的赤霞珠, 因而單寧含量也會較高。

梅鹿也是波爾多葡萄酒中使用的主要葡萄之一, 同時, 也是該地區種植最廣泛的葡萄之一。 在很多市場, 梅鹿都是上最受歡迎的紅酒葡萄品種之一。

梅鹿有兩種主要風格。 許多新世界葡萄酒産區都偏愛“國際風格”, 往往強調晚收成, 以獲得成熟度, 並生産出酒色深紫, 酒體豐滿, 柔和單寧, 且帶有強烈的李子和黑莓果味。儘管許多波爾多酒莊都採用這種國際風格 , 但傳統"波爾多風格"的梅鹿仍有無可取代的特性, 早收成的梅鹿保留了酸度, 生産出中等酒精濃度中等酒體的酒, 並帶有新鮮的紅色水果風味(覆盆子, 士多啤梨)。

Its softness and "fleshiness", combined with its earlier ripening, makes Merlot a popular grape for blending with the sterner, Late-ripening Cabernet Sauvignon, which tends to be higher in tannin.

Merlot is one of the primary grapes used in Bordeaux wine, and it is the most widely planted grape in the Bordeaux wine regions. Merlot is also one of the most popular red wine varietals in many markets.

There two main styles of Merlot. The "International style" favored by many New World wine regions tends to emphasize late harvesting to gain physiological ripeness and produce inky, purple colored wines that are full in body with high alcohol and lush, Velvety tannins with intense, plum and blackberry fruit. While this international style is practiced by many Bordeaux wine producers, the traditional "Bordeaux style" of Merlot involves harvesting Merlot earlier to maintain acidity and producing medium-bodied wines with moderate alcohol levels that have fresh, red fruit flavors (raspberries, strawberries).

赤霞珠

Cabernet Sauvignon

赤霞珠是世界上最知名的紅酒葡萄品種之一。 在各種氣候條件下, 幾乎每個主要的葡萄酒生産國都種植這種葡萄。 赤霞珠以其在波爾多葡萄酒中的突出地位而享譽國際, 在波爾多葡萄酒中通常與梅鹿和品麗珠混釀。 在整個20世紀的大部分時間裡, 它一直是世界上種植最廣泛的優質紅酒葡萄, 直到1990年代才被梅鹿所超越。 然而, 到2015年, 赤霞珠又再次成為種植最廣泛的釀酒葡萄品種。

儘管在釀酒中佔有重要地位, 但該葡萄還是一個相對較新的品種。它的受歡迎程度通常歸因於其易於種植, 皮厚, 葡萄藤堅硬, 自然低産量, 發芽較晚以避免霜凍, 並能抵抗各種葡萄栽培危害(例如腐爛和昆蟲), 以及結構和風味的表現的一致性。

赤霞珠的典型特徵是單寧濃郁, 酸度顕著的濃郁葡萄酒。 葡萄酒的陳年潛力。在低溫氣候下, 赤霞珠往往會釀造出帶有黑加侖子味的葡萄酒, 並伴有 緑色甜椒, 薄荷和雪松随著葡萄酒的陳年变得越来越明顕。 在較為溫和的氣候中, 會帶有黑加侖子, 黑櫻桃和黑橄欖的香氣。

Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is often blended with Merlot and Cabernet Franc. For most of the 20th century, it was the world's most widely planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s. However, by 2015, Cabernet Sauvignon had once again become the most widely planted wine grape.

Despite its prominence in the industry, the grape is a relatively new variety. Its popularity is often attributed to its ease of cultivation—the grapes have thick skins and the vines are hardy and naturally low yielding, budding late to avoid frost and resistant to viticulture hazards such as rot and insects—and to its consistent presentation of structure and flavors.

The classic profile of Cabernet Sauvignon tends to be full-bodied wines with high tannins and noticeable acidity that contributes to the wine's aging potential. In cooler climates, Cabernet Sauvignon tends to produce wines with blackcurrant notes that can be accompanied by green bell pepper notes, mint and cedar which will all become more pronounced as the wine ages. In more moderate climates the blackcurrant notes are often seen with black cherry and black olive notes.

霞多麗
/莎當妮

Chardonnay

霞多麗是一種用於生産白葡萄酒的緑皮膚葡萄品種。 該品種起源於法國東部的勃艮第葡萄酒産區。

霞多麗葡萄本身是中性的, 與其有関联的口味通常源自於風土和橡木桶。 它以多種不同風格釀造, 従輕盈, 清脆的礦物夏布利酒, , 以至新世界的橡木桶和熱帶水果釀造的葡萄酒。 在低溫的氣候下, 霞多麗葡萄酒往往造中等至淡淡的酒體, 具有明顯的酸度和青梅, 蘋果和梨的風味。 。 在溫暖的地方, 味道會变得更多柑橘, 桃子和密瓜味。在非常溫暖的地方, 會有更多無花果和熱帶水果香調, 例如香蕉和芒果。

Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine. The variety originated in the Burgundy wine region of eastern France.

The Chardonnay grape itself is neutral, with many of the flavors commonly associated with the wine being derived from such influences as terroir and oak. It is vinified in many different styles, from the lean, crisply mineral wines of Chablis, France, to New World wines with oak and tropical fruit flavors. In cool climates, Chardonnay wine tends to be medium to light body with noticeable acidity and flavors of green plum, apple, and pear. In warmer locations, the flavors become more citrus, peach, and melon, while in very warm locations, more fig and tropical fruit notes such as banana and mango come out.

麗絲玲
/雷司令

Riesling

麗絲玲是一種白葡萄品種, 起源於莱茵河地區。 麗絲玲是一種芳香的葡萄品種, 帶有芬芳花香, 幾乎的香氣以及高酸度。 它被用於釀造乾, 半甜, 甜和有氣葡萄酒。麗絲玲葡萄酒通常是純品種, 很少用橡木桶陳年。 自2004年起, 麗絲玲被認為是世界上種植量排名第20多的品種, 但就優質葡萄酒的重要性而言, 通常與霞多麗和白蘇維翁並列頭三位。 麗絲玲具有高度風土表現力, 這意味著麗絲玲葡萄酒的特性在很大程度上受到其産地的影響。

在低溫候下, 麗絲玲葡萄酒往往表現出蘋果和樹果的香氣。 具有明顕的酸度水平, 有時會加殘留糖以保持平衡。 麗絲玲一種較晚熟的品種, 可以在溫暖的氣候下生長出更多的柑橘和桃子香氣。 麗絲玲的天然高酸度和明顯的水果風味使這種用葡萄製成的葡萄酒具有極好的陳年潛力, 精選的佳釀出品的年份佳釀通常會散發出煙熏, 蜂蜜味道。

Riesling is a white grape variety which originated in the Rhine region. Riesling is an aromatic grape variety displaying flowery aromas as well as high acidity. It is used to make dry, semi-sweet, sweet, and sparkling white wines. Riesling wines are usually varietally pure and are seldom oaked. As of 2004, Riesling was estimated to be the world's 20th most grown variety, but in terms of importance for quality wines, it is usually included in the top three white wine varieties together with Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc. Riesling is highly terroir-expressive, meaning that the character of Riesling wines is greatly influenced by the wine's place of origin.

In cool climates, Riesling wines tend to exhibit apple and tree fruit notes with noticeable levels of acidity that are sometimes balanced with residual sugar. A late-ripening variety that can develop more citrus and peach notes is grown in warmer climates. Riesling's naturally high acidity and pronounced fruit flavors give wines made from the grape exceptional aging potential, with well-made examples from favorable vintages often developing smoky, honey notes.

白蘇維翁
/白蘇維儂/白蘇維濃/長相思

Sauvignon Blanc

白蘇維翁是一種緑色皮膚的葡萄品種, 起源於法國波爾多地區。 由於該葡萄起源於法國西南部, 因此其名稱很可能従法語單詞sauvage(“野生”)和blanc(“白”)中得名。 白蘇維翁種植在世界許多葡萄酒產區, 生産出清爽, 清新的乾白葡萄酒。

視氣候而定, 其風味可能會是草甜或熱帶甜味。 在低溫氣候下, 葡萄傾向於生産具有明顕酸度和帶有草, 青椒和蕁麻加上一些熱帶水果(如熱情果)和花香(如接骨木花)的香氣。 在溫暖的氣候下, 它可以産生更多的熱帶水果味, 但可能因過度成熟而失去很多香氣, 僅留下少量西柚和樹果(如桃子)味。

Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux region of France. The grape most likely gets its name from the French words sauvage ("wild") and blanc ("white") due to its early origins as an indigenous grape in South West France. Sauvignon blanc is planted in many of the world's wine regions, producing a crisp, dry, and refreshing white varietal wine.

Depending on the climate, the flavor can range from aggressively grassy to sweetly tropical. In cooler climates, the grape has a tendency to produce wines with noticeable acidity and "green flavors" of grass, green bell peppers and nettles with some tropical fruit (such as passion fruit) and floral (such as elderflower) notes. In warmer climates, it can develop more tropical fruit notes but risks losing much aroma from over-ripeness, leaving only slight grapefruit and tree fruit (such as peach) notes.

黑皮諾
/黑比諾/黑品樂

Pinot Noir

黑比諾是一種属於Vitis vinifera品種的紅葡萄。 該名稱源自法語單詞pine和black。 "pine"一詞指的是葡萄品種, 形容具有緊密聚集的松果錐形束的水果。

黑比諾葡萄在世界各地生長, 大多在較低溫的氣候下生長, 該葡萄主要與法國的勃艮第地區有関。 黑皮諾現在被用来製作紅酒, 香檳以及起泡白葡萄酒。 黑比諾是香檳區和其他中起泡酒葡萄酒産區中種得最多的葡萄品種。

黑比諾是一種很難培育和轉化為葡萄酒的品種。葡萄傾向於産生緊密堆積的葡萄簇, 這使得 它易受幾種涉及腐爛的葡萄栽培危害的影響, 因此需要勤加管理。 皮薄而酚類化合物含量低使皮諾葡萄酒産生的顔色淺, 中等酒體, 低單寧葡萄酒, 通常會經歴不均勻且不可預測的陳釀階段。 初時, 用黑比諾葡萄酒製成的葡萄酒往往帶有櫻桃, 覆盆子和士多啤梨的紅色水果香氣。 随著葡萄酒年齢的增長, 黑皮諾有可能發展出更多的植物香氣, 從而增加葡萄酒風味的複雑性。

Pinot noir is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. The name is derived from the French words for pine and black. The word pine alludes to the grape variety having tightly clustered, pine cone-shaped bunches of fruit.

Pinot noir grapes are grown around the world, mostly in the cooler climates, and the grape is chiefly associated with the Burgundy region of France. Pinot noir is now used to make red wines around the world, as well as Champagne and sparkling white wines. Pinot noir is the most-planted varietal (38%) used in sparkling wine production in Champagne and other wine regions.

Pinot noir is a difficult variety to cultivate and transform into wine. The grape's tendency to produce tightly packed clusters makes it susceptible to several viticulture hazards involving rot that require diligent canopy management. The thin skins and low levels of phenolic compounds lends pinot to producing mostly lightly colored, medium-bodied and low-tannin wines that can often go through phases of uneven and unpredictable aging. When young, wines made from pinot noir tend to have red fruit aromas of cherries, raspberries and strawberries. As the wine ages, pinot has the potential to develop more vegetal aromas that can contribute to the complexity of the wine.